The many wonders of Plant extract in the chemical and food industry

There are so many wonders in the human ecosystem that are yet to be discovered and explored to its fullest. Every day, newer discoveries are made helping to further advance human society and providing answers to yet to questions. One of such wonders that is the ability of stem cells or plants to provide solutions to a wide variety of human issues.

Plants generally are a blessing to humanity, from serving as a cover, wind break, a source of photosynthesis, erosion control, and food for both man and animals, soil cover, health booster / remedy and so many more. Added to this endless list are the many benefits of plant extraction for the chemical industry.

A whole lot of chemical composition is derived from plant extraction; from the stems, to leaves, roots, hard bark, seeds /fruits and even the fluids contained in these plants are regularly extracted for the production of different kinds of chemicals for consumption as well as serve as raw materials for production of other goods.

Plant extraction based on research are known to form the basis for the production of cosmetic products in particular. Cosmetic products using natural chemicals are usually referred to as natural or organic products and seen to offer nature’s solution to human problems. There are a wide variety of such including essential oil, vegetable oil, olive oil and others used for skin /hair  treatment.

Apart from these industrially used oils and the use of plant extract for pharmaceutical products there are so many others such as latex, rubber, gum, wax, dye for making a wide variety of products.

Plant extraction also provide a good source of raw materials required for food and food additives such as vegetable oils and fatty acid. These plant extracts are classified as primary and secondary metabolites. The primary metabolites are used for producing soap and detergent. Also, carbohydrate gotten from cassava can generate sucrose, starch, pectin and are all referred to as primary metabolites. Secondary metabolites extracted from plants are responsible for flavour, fragrance, pharmaceuticals and pesticides.


API production of venlafaxine in the industry

Venlafaxine is a well-known tablet in pharmaceutical industry. It produces a high amount of profit for the

investors and the company. This product is not produce so easily. Regardless of the hue benefit of this

product it has a complex API production process. In API production list this capsule has a huge

manufacturers list. API production has a huge market in Asia.


This tablet is used as a capsule. This is made for the patients of depression. If you are in depression then

Effexor (brand name)is the best capsule for you. It a chemical compound which has carbon, hydrogen and

nitrogen in it. This is widely used by the patients of anxiety and the people who are suffer form headache.

Gross profit:

According to the analysis this drug sells have reached an amount of 880 million dollars. In the past years

it was the third most used tablet of heap pain by the patients. Now a days it stills has a large amount of

customers in the market. In API production list this product has a huge name.


If we talk about API production then many countries make this capsule now a days. Switzerland, New

Zealand and Australia are the main manufacturers of this product. It is widely used in the under developed

and developed countries. This capsule is manufactured in lot of brand names.

Pros and cons:

1) It removes the head pain fast.

2) It is cheap and available in every store.

3) You can eat this medicine without consulting the doctor if you are having a normal head pain.

4) This is made for the people who have migraine and mental depression due to any reason.

5) The excessive use of this drug can lead to edition and your head pain will not remove until you

use this capsule.

6) This capsule will give you relaxation but you will also feel sleepy at the same time. You may ot

be able to work properly for some hours after taking this medicine.

Peptides in Skin care and Different types of peptides

Skin Care ItemsMaterials today contain some of the most real technology for anti aging and skin

transformation. Some of our expertspreferred ingredients consist of, but are not imperfect to: Glycolic

acid, vitamin c, Hyaluronic acid and at present, peptides!

Why it is Peptides?

As we age, environmental elements, hormones, damage of sun, etc.grounds our skin to createlow collagen

and elastin. It is collagen that cares the construction of our skin,creating it stable and strong. Glycolic acid

has the capability to kindle collagen, but must be wiselya selection of skin care items.

The currentprogress of Peptides further improve the capability to rouse collagen, letting us to balance

many of the marks of aging.

There are severalkinds of peptides (certainare more operationalthan others) and discovered it at the

lowermost of your skin care element list, probable means the product covers such a negligible amount.

Though, the other elements may have welfares to address skin rejuvenation so do not let that discourage

you if you are notseeing for a fairly focuseditem. As experimental skin specialists research and for myself

use all elementsfounded on our clients wants and beliefs to be sure to offer them with itemswhich produce


We have delivered a some different peptides and by what way they differ:

 Tetra and Pentapeptides- It motivates collagen to plump and secure the outmostlevel of the skin.

Relax facial muscles whichgive to appearance lines and channels.

 Hexapeptides-To calm muscle contractions relax wrinkles whichgive to our facial terms that

outcome as bottomless furrows and wrinkles.

 Tripeptide – It also diminishes facial muscles to equalizer facial expression lines or wrinkles.

 Copper Peptides- Curing and overhaulingpeptides to active the skins

curingcapabilitieswhereasmotivating collagen.

TAPI – NO to powerful drugs

The drugmaker TAPI said it won't make any a greater amount of its narcotic propofol, which could

increase a deficiency of a standout amongst the most well-known sedatives in the U.S. The medicine is

difficult to produce and the organization gets almost no benefit from it. TAPI needed to end creation and

review a portion of the drug a year ago as a result of assembling issues, and it is confronting a heap of

propofol-related common claims. The most widely recognized intravenous soporific in the U.S., utilized

for general anesthesia and for sedation since when it's utilized legitimately, patients wake up rapidly and

symptoms are uncommon. The medicine is frequently utilized as a part of medical treatment and is

turning out to be more prominent in techniques like epidural anesthesia.

The FDI says the lack of the medicine since the previous fall since assembling issues constrained both

TAPI and Hospira Inc. to suspend assembling and review some of their adaptations of the narcotic. With

no U.S. organizations making the drug, the office approved the importation of a rendition endorsed in


TAPI didn’t make propofol, but rather plans to offer from stocks effectively made. Hospira let it know

can't continue offering the drug until the FDA endorses changes to its assembling techniques. Few

organizations make propofol in light of the fact that it is muddled to make. It's an emulsion — a mix of

two fluids that don't mix together synthetically — and it must be put away painstakingly in light of the

fact that microorganisms can sully it more effortlessly than different drugs.

In 2008, propofol was associated with a hepatitis C episode that contaminated more than 100 individuals.

Vials of propofol were professedly used to treat more than one patient every, spreading the liver sickness.

Nearly 200 claims have been recorded regarding the event. The drug got to be scandalous a year ago

when it was associated with the demise of Michael Jackson. TAPI said it trusts propofol is safe and viable

when it is utilized appropriately.

Concentration as a stage in downstream processing and what it entails

In concentration as a stage in downstream processing, the filtrate which is free from suspended

particles normally contains 80-98 of water. The product that is desired is a very minor constituent. In

order to achieve the product’s concentration, the water has to be removed. The following techniques

are commonly used in concentrating biological products for downstream processing;

 Evaporation

 Liquid-liquid extraction

 Membrane filtration

 Precipitation

 Adsorption

In evaporation, the evaporators in general, have a unit for the separation of concentrated product and

vapour, a heating device to supply steam, a condenser to condense the vapour, control equipment and

accessories. Capacity of the equipment may range from a small laboratory to industrial scale.

In liquid-liquid extraction, concentration of biological products can be achieved by transferring

desired product from one liquid phase to another liquid phase. This technique in downstream

processing is also useful for partial product purification. The efficiency of this process is dependent

on the partition coefficient. This process may be broadly categorized as the extraction of low

molecular weight products and extraction of high molecular weight products.

Membrane filtration involves the use of semi permeable membrane that retains the particles

selectively. The membranes used are made up of polymeric materials such as polyvinyl di fluoride

and polyethersulfone. It is normally difficult to sterilize membrane filters.

In precipitation involves the use of high molecular weight polymers, organic solvents and neutral

salts. Both temperature alteration and PH are used in this process.

Adsorption involves concentrating biological products of fermentation using adsorbent particles.

Activated charcoal was used in the early days as the adsorbent material. Cellulose based adsorbents

are used in the recent days. Polystyrene, acrylate based matrices and methacrylate are used for

concentration of low molecular weight compounds. This process can be carried out by passing culture

broth through a bed of adsorbent column.

Retrosynthetic analysis and related terms in synthetic organic chemistry

This analysis is defined as a method for problem solving in the preparation of untreated synthesis in

synthetic organic chemistry. The process is attained by transformation of a target particle to simpler

forerunner elements without starting materials assumptions.

The same method is used to examine each precursor material. The procedure is then repeated until

commercially available simple structures are gotten. The concept was formalized b E.J Corey in 1990

and he received a Nobel Prize in chemistry for this reason

Structural simplification is the main goal of retrosynthesis in synthetic organic chemistry. A process

will often have multiple synthetic routes to complete the process. In case of identifying multiple

methods, then this process is well suited and it compares them in a straightforward and logical

fashion. In order to decide if a module exists already in the process at each stage, then a database may

be consulted. No further compound exploration will be required in case.

Below are terms in retrosynthetic analysis in synthetic organic chemistry you should know;

 Retron- it is a molecular substructure that makes certain transformation possible

 Retrosynthetic tree- this is a directed acyclic graph of several possible retrosyntheses of a

single target.

 Disconnection- it is a step in retrosynthetic that involves the breaking of a bond to form more


 Target- this is the desired final compound

 Synthon- it is an idealized molecular fragment that corresponds commercially available

synthetic equivalent

 Transform- this is the synthetic reaction in the reverse. It is the formation of starting materials

from a single product.

Below are different strategies involved in retrosynthetic analysis in synthetic organic chemistry

 Functional group strategies

 Stereoc hemical strategies

 Structure goal strategies

 Transform based strategies

 Topological strategies

Downstream Processing, a very valuable process in the production line

Downstream processing is a supply chain process that is the end process after upstream and midstream

process. The upstream process deals with the fermentation, elimination of waste and the product is

recovered and harvested. The fermenter is determined so that the byproducts and the fermented product

are separated from the broth.


The processing operations begin with the upstream processing and this mostly includes all the initial

operations such as:

 Filtration that involves separation operations

 Floatation

 Centrifugation

 Solubilisation

 Extraction

 Filtration of thermal processing membrane and

 Precipitation.

Eventually, the purification operations also include the midstream processing, a part of the downstream

processing marketing operations such as packing, drying and storage.


Downstream processing plays a crucial role in pharmaceutical manufacturing companies. This is

because here also it deals with the recovery and purifying of biosynthetic products, thereby includes the

recycling of components, waste disposal and treatment.

Downstream processing is a process that helps in manufacturing or production as it purifies products and

makes it suitable for a particular use in marketable quantity. On the other hand the analytical

bioseparation also is a part of this processing that refers to the purification purpose to measure the mixture

of a component or a component and may also deal with sample sizes.

Influential programs

The influential programs of downstream processing include conditions yielding higher production and

steps to arrive at desired designs and configurations. With the completion of the purification process,

steps are taken to carry out the contaminants resembling the chemical and physical properties of the

product and in this stage downstream processing works to carry out this sophisticated and sensitive

equipment out, thereby adding a fraction to the processing cost.

Finally, before the product is packed, polishing is done, depending on the products need or use and some

undergo sterilizing to eliminate contaminants, thus ensure safety.

High Potency Drugs At Low Concentration

A drug with a high potency is one that stimulates a response at low concentration. Affinity and efficacy

determine how potent a drug is. Affinity is described as the force that leads to a combination of particles.

And efficacy is the ability of a drug to deliver therapeutic effects.

Absolute caution is advised for the purpose of safety of those involved in the production of high potency


Due to the high level of toxins that these drugs are prone to carry, protection has been advanced from just

personal protective equipment. Use of isolator technologies has been put in place to protect the employees

from getting exposed to a potent element.

Of all the proposals there has been on which method to use to determine potency, the one that has

received extensive use has to be the (category 1 = low toxicity; category 4 = high potency) 2.

Classification of high potency drugs can also be done through the use of occupational exposure bands.

A drug is described as potent when;

 Its biological activity is 150ug per body mass kg

 It’s likely to cause cancer, reproductive toxicology, and cell mutations. These might be happening

at unnoticeable rates.

 The presence of unknown elements in the body is noted.

Products which are known to be in this class include digoxin and alprazolam. Manufacture of these drugs

is faced with not only safe handling setbacks but also the fact that production of homogeneous products in

units contains a very little quantity of the drug. In order to curb this, experts have are considering

absorbing the drug as a liquid, and encapsulating it in a soft gel.

The benefit of this procedure is that there will be a reduction of exposure rate since there will be no

release of airborne dust.

The origin of Plant extraction was developed many years ago. Human learned about the plants benefit a

long time ago and hence came up with the first techniques to obtain plant extracts the very first extracts

were attained from fermentation of alcohol using methods such as decoction or distillation, maceration,

infusion or even some process which used water.

In the analysis of o medicinal plants extraction is the first step. It is very critical to extract the desired

chemical components in a plant and later you perform separation and characterization, the simple

operation process is done in steps the first steps is washing the plant materials thoroughly then you dry or

freeze them.

The Procedures and Material Used In Plant Extraction

The first procedures in Plant extraction, the tool they use are used materials and the methods of heating

needed knowledge but not science. However in the current generation accurate mechanization, tolerable

apparatus, proceed in methods analysis and engineering and new technologies for instance pressure,

microwaves or ultrasound, the world of plant extraction expertise still bases on the real association

between the mastery of present technology and tradition. The extract is a substance obtained specifically

from a solid to liquid extraction it is very different from a solid liquid separation.

Excellence Criteria in Plant Extraction

The main determination factors of plant extraction are the selecting raw materials choosing the correct

solvent the utilization process and the performances of the equipment’s all the parameters must be

combined professionally and finally if you follow all the parameters well you will be able to obtain high-

quality plant extracts.

The plant extraction usually happens in a combination of various types of bioactive compounds or phyto

chemicals which holds different polarities however their separations remains a challenge to some people.

Methods of Plant extraction in Drug production

Plant Extraction, as the term is utilized pharmaceutically, includes the partition of restoratively active

bits of plant or creature tissues from the idle or latent segments by utilizing specific solvents as a part of

standard extraction systems. The items so acquired from plants are moderately sullied fluids, semisolids

or powders expected just for oral or outer use. These incorporate classes of arrangements known as

decoctions, mixtures, liquid concentrates, tinctures, pilular (semisolid) extricates and powdered

concentrates. Such arrangements prominently have been called galenicals, named after Galen, the second

century Greek doctor. The reasons for institutionalized plant extraction methods for unrefined

medications are to achieve the restoratively wanted partition and to kill the inactive material by treatment

with a particular dissolvable known as menstruum. The concentrate accordingly acquired might be

prepared for use as a restorative operator as tinctures and liquid concentrates, it might be further handled

to be fused in any dose frame, for example, tablets or cases, or it might be fractionated to detach singular

synthetic elements, for example, ajmalicine, hyoscine and vincristine, which are cutting edge drugs. In

this way, institutionalization of extraction strategies contributes essentially to the last nature of the home

grown medication. Some methods of plant Extraction from herbal Plants are listed below:

 Maceration

 Infusion

 Counter current extraction

 Digestion

 Hot continuous extraction

 Decoction

 Phytonics process

 Percolation

Parameters for Selecting an Appropriate Extraction Method

 Use the right plant part and, for quality control purposes, record the period of plant and the time,

season and place of accumulation.

 Authentication of plant material ought to be done before performing extraction. Any outside

matter ought to be totally dispensed with.

 The nature of water or menstruum utilized ought to be indicated and controlled.

 Conditions utilized for drying the plant material to a great extent rely on upon the way of its

compound constituents. Hot or cool blowing wind stream for drying is by and large favored.

 The number of extractions required for complete extraction is as imperative as the length of every


 Nature of constituents plays an imperative part here.