TAPI – NO to powerful drugs

The drugmaker TAPI said it won't make any a greater amount of its narcotic propofol, which could

increase a deficiency of a standout amongst the most well-known sedatives in the U.S. The medicine is

difficult to produce and the organization gets almost no benefit from it. TAPI needed to end creation and

review a portion of the drug a year ago as a result of assembling issues, and it is confronting a heap of

propofol-related common claims. The most widely recognized intravenous soporific in the U.S., utilized

for general anesthesia and for sedation since when it's utilized legitimately, patients wake up rapidly and

symptoms are uncommon. The medicine is frequently utilized as a part of medical treatment and is

turning out to be more prominent in techniques like epidural anesthesia.

The FDI says the lack of the medicine since the previous fall since assembling issues constrained both

TAPI and Hospira Inc. to suspend assembling and review some of their adaptations of the narcotic. With

no U.S. organizations making the drug, the office approved the importation of a rendition endorsed in


TAPI didn’t make propofol, but rather plans to offer from stocks effectively made. Hospira let it know

can't continue offering the drug until the FDA endorses changes to its assembling techniques. Few

organizations make propofol in light of the fact that it is muddled to make. It's an emulsion — a mix of

two fluids that don't mix together synthetically — and it must be put away painstakingly in light of the

fact that microorganisms can sully it more effortlessly than different drugs.

In 2008, propofol was associated with a hepatitis C episode that contaminated more than 100 individuals.

Vials of propofol were professedly used to treat more than one patient every, spreading the liver sickness.

Nearly 200 claims have been recorded regarding the event. The drug got to be scandalous a year ago

when it was associated with the demise of Michael Jackson. TAPI said it trusts propofol is safe and viable

when it is utilized appropriately.

Concentration as a stage in downstream processing and what it entails

In concentration as a stage in downstream processing, the filtrate which is free from suspended

particles normally contains 80-98 of water. The product that is desired is a very minor constituent. In

order to achieve the product’s concentration, the water has to be removed. The following techniques

are commonly used in concentrating biological products for downstream processing;

 Evaporation

 Liquid-liquid extraction

 Membrane filtration

 Precipitation

 Adsorption

In evaporation, the evaporators in general, have a unit for the separation of concentrated product and

vapour, a heating device to supply steam, a condenser to condense the vapour, control equipment and

accessories. Capacity of the equipment may range from a small laboratory to industrial scale.

In liquid-liquid extraction, concentration of biological products can be achieved by transferring

desired product from one liquid phase to another liquid phase. This technique in downstream

processing is also useful for partial product purification. The efficiency of this process is dependent

on the partition coefficient. This process may be broadly categorized as the extraction of low

molecular weight products and extraction of high molecular weight products.

Membrane filtration involves the use of semi permeable membrane that retains the particles

selectively. The membranes used are made up of polymeric materials such as polyvinyl di fluoride

and polyethersulfone. It is normally difficult to sterilize membrane filters.

In precipitation involves the use of high molecular weight polymers, organic solvents and neutral

salts. Both temperature alteration and PH are used in this process.

Adsorption involves concentrating biological products of fermentation using adsorbent particles.

Activated charcoal was used in the early days as the adsorbent material. Cellulose based adsorbents

are used in the recent days. Polystyrene, acrylate based matrices and methacrylate are used for

concentration of low molecular weight compounds. This process can be carried out by passing culture

broth through a bed of adsorbent column.

Retrosynthetic analysis and related terms in synthetic organic chemistry

This analysis is defined as a method for problem solving in the preparation of untreated synthesis in

synthetic organic chemistry. The process is attained by transformation of a target particle to simpler

forerunner elements without starting materials assumptions.

The same method is used to examine each precursor material. The procedure is then repeated until

commercially available simple structures are gotten. The concept was formalized b E.J Corey in 1990

and he received a Nobel Prize in chemistry for this reason

Structural simplification is the main goal of retrosynthesis in synthetic organic chemistry. A process

will often have multiple synthetic routes to complete the process. In case of identifying multiple

methods, then this process is well suited and it compares them in a straightforward and logical

fashion. In order to decide if a module exists already in the process at each stage, then a database may

be consulted. No further compound exploration will be required in case.

Below are terms in retrosynthetic analysis in synthetic organic chemistry you should know;

 Retron- it is a molecular substructure that makes certain transformation possible

 Retrosynthetic tree- this is a directed acyclic graph of several possible retrosyntheses of a

single target.

 Disconnection- it is a step in retrosynthetic that involves the breaking of a bond to form more


 Target- this is the desired final compound

 Synthon- it is an idealized molecular fragment that corresponds commercially available

synthetic equivalent

 Transform- this is the synthetic reaction in the reverse. It is the formation of starting materials

from a single product.

Below are different strategies involved in retrosynthetic analysis in synthetic organic chemistry

 Functional group strategies

 Stereoc hemical strategies

 Structure goal strategies

 Transform based strategies

 Topological strategies

Downstream Processing, a very valuable process in the production line

Downstream processing is a supply chain process that is the end process after upstream and midstream

process. The upstream process deals with the fermentation, elimination of waste and the product is

recovered and harvested. The fermenter is determined so that the byproducts and the fermented product

are separated from the broth.


The processing operations begin with the upstream processing and this mostly includes all the initial

operations such as:

 Filtration that involves separation operations

 Floatation

 Centrifugation

 Solubilisation

 Extraction

 Filtration of thermal processing membrane and

 Precipitation.

Eventually, the purification operations also include the midstream processing, a part of the downstream

processing marketing operations such as packing, drying and storage.


Downstream processing plays a crucial role in pharmaceutical manufacturing companies. This is

because here also it deals with the recovery and purifying of biosynthetic products, thereby includes the

recycling of components, waste disposal and treatment.

Downstream processing is a process that helps in manufacturing or production as it purifies products and

makes it suitable for a particular use in marketable quantity. On the other hand the analytical

bioseparation also is a part of this processing that refers to the purification purpose to measure the mixture

of a component or a component and may also deal with sample sizes.

Influential programs

The influential programs of downstream processing include conditions yielding higher production and

steps to arrive at desired designs and configurations. With the completion of the purification process,

steps are taken to carry out the contaminants resembling the chemical and physical properties of the

product and in this stage downstream processing works to carry out this sophisticated and sensitive

equipment out, thereby adding a fraction to the processing cost.

Finally, before the product is packed, polishing is done, depending on the products need or use and some

undergo sterilizing to eliminate contaminants, thus ensure safety.

High Potency Drugs At Low Concentration

A drug with a high potency is one that stimulates a response at low concentration. Affinity and efficacy

determine how potent a drug is. Affinity is described as the force that leads to a combination of particles.

And efficacy is the ability of a drug to deliver therapeutic effects.

Absolute caution is advised for the purpose of safety of those involved in the production of high potency


Due to the high level of toxins that these drugs are prone to carry, protection has been advanced from just

personal protective equipment. Use of isolator technologies has been put in place to protect the employees

from getting exposed to a potent element.

Of all the proposals there has been on which method to use to determine potency, the one that has

received extensive use has to be the (category 1 = low toxicity; category 4 = high potency) 2.

Classification of high potency drugs can also be done through the use of occupational exposure bands.

A drug is described as potent when;

 Its biological activity is 150ug per body mass kg

 It’s likely to cause cancer, reproductive toxicology, and cell mutations. These might be happening

at unnoticeable rates.

 The presence of unknown elements in the body is noted.

Products which are known to be in this class include digoxin and alprazolam. Manufacture of these drugs

is faced with not only safe handling setbacks but also the fact that production of homogeneous products in

units contains a very little quantity of the drug. In order to curb this, experts have are considering

absorbing the drug as a liquid, and encapsulating it in a soft gel.

The benefit of this procedure is that there will be a reduction of exposure rate since there will be no

release of airborne dust.