Downstream Processing, a very valuable process in the production line

Downstream processing is a supply chain process that is the end process after upstream and midstream

process. The upstream process deals with the fermentation, elimination of waste and the product is

recovered and harvested. The fermenter is determined so that the byproducts and the fermented product

are separated from the broth.


The processing operations begin with the upstream processing and this mostly includes all the initial

operations such as:

 Filtration that involves separation operations

 Floatation

 Centrifugation

 Solubilisation

 Extraction

 Filtration of thermal processing membrane and

 Precipitation.

Eventually, the purification operations also include the midstream processing, a part of the downstream

processing marketing operations such as packing, drying and storage.


Downstream processing plays a crucial role in pharmaceutical manufacturing companies. This is

because here also it deals with the recovery and purifying of biosynthetic products, thereby includes the

recycling of components, waste disposal and treatment.

Downstream processing is a process that helps in manufacturing or production as it purifies products and

makes it suitable for a particular use in marketable quantity. On the other hand the analytical

bioseparation also is a part of this processing that refers to the purification purpose to measure the mixture

of a component or a component and may also deal with sample sizes.

Influential programs

The influential programs of downstream processing include conditions yielding higher production and

steps to arrive at desired designs and configurations. With the completion of the purification process,

steps are taken to carry out the contaminants resembling the chemical and physical properties of the

product and in this stage downstream processing works to carry out this sophisticated and sensitive

equipment out, thereby adding a fraction to the processing cost.

Finally, before the product is packed, polishing is done, depending on the products need or use and some

undergo sterilizing to eliminate contaminants, thus ensure safety.

High Potency Drugs At Low Concentration

A drug with a high potency is one that stimulates a response at low concentration. Affinity and efficacy

determine how potent a drug is. Affinity is described as the force that leads to a combination of particles.

And efficacy is the ability of a drug to deliver therapeutic effects.

Absolute caution is advised for the purpose of safety of those involved in the production of high potency


Due to the high level of toxins that these drugs are prone to carry, protection has been advanced from just

personal protective equipment. Use of isolator technologies has been put in place to protect the employees

from getting exposed to a potent element.

Of all the proposals there has been on which method to use to determine potency, the one that has

received extensive use has to be the (category 1 = low toxicity; category 4 = high potency) 2.

Classification of high potency drugs can also be done through the use of occupational exposure bands.

A drug is described as potent when;

 Its biological activity is 150ug per body mass kg

 It’s likely to cause cancer, reproductive toxicology, and cell mutations. These might be happening

at unnoticeable rates.

 The presence of unknown elements in the body is noted.

Products which are known to be in this class include digoxin and alprazolam. Manufacture of these drugs

is faced with not only safe handling setbacks but also the fact that production of homogeneous products in

units contains a very little quantity of the drug. In order to curb this, experts have are considering

absorbing the drug as a liquid, and encapsulating it in a soft gel.

The benefit of this procedure is that there will be a reduction of exposure rate since there will be no

release of airborne dust.

The origin of Plant extraction was developed many years ago. Human learned about the plants benefit a

long time ago and hence came up with the first techniques to obtain plant extracts the very first extracts

were attained from fermentation of alcohol using methods such as decoction or distillation, maceration,

infusion or even some process which used water.

In the analysis of o medicinal plants extraction is the first step. It is very critical to extract the desired

chemical components in a plant and later you perform separation and characterization, the simple

operation process is done in steps the first steps is washing the plant materials thoroughly then you dry or

freeze them.

The Procedures and Material Used In Plant Extraction

The first procedures in Plant extraction, the tool they use are used materials and the methods of heating

needed knowledge but not science. However in the current generation accurate mechanization, tolerable

apparatus, proceed in methods analysis and engineering and new technologies for instance pressure,

microwaves or ultrasound, the world of plant extraction expertise still bases on the real association

between the mastery of present technology and tradition. The extract is a substance obtained specifically

from a solid to liquid extraction it is very different from a solid liquid separation.

Excellence Criteria in Plant Extraction

The main determination factors of plant extraction are the selecting raw materials choosing the correct

solvent the utilization process and the performances of the equipment’s all the parameters must be

combined professionally and finally if you follow all the parameters well you will be able to obtain high-

quality plant extracts.

The plant extraction usually happens in a combination of various types of bioactive compounds or phyto

chemicals which holds different polarities however their separations remains a challenge to some people.

Methods of Plant extraction in Drug production

Plant Extraction, as the term is utilized pharmaceutically, includes the partition of restoratively active

bits of plant or creature tissues from the idle or latent segments by utilizing specific solvents as a part of

standard extraction systems. The items so acquired from plants are moderately sullied fluids, semisolids

or powders expected just for oral or outer use. These incorporate classes of arrangements known as

decoctions, mixtures, liquid concentrates, tinctures, pilular (semisolid) extricates and powdered

concentrates. Such arrangements prominently have been called galenicals, named after Galen, the second

century Greek doctor. The reasons for institutionalized plant extraction methods for unrefined

medications are to achieve the restoratively wanted partition and to kill the inactive material by treatment

with a particular dissolvable known as menstruum. The concentrate accordingly acquired might be

prepared for use as a restorative operator as tinctures and liquid concentrates, it might be further handled

to be fused in any dose frame, for example, tablets or cases, or it might be fractionated to detach singular

synthetic elements, for example, ajmalicine, hyoscine and vincristine, which are cutting edge drugs. In

this way, institutionalization of extraction strategies contributes essentially to the last nature of the home

grown medication. Some methods of plant Extraction from herbal Plants are listed below:

 Maceration

 Infusion

 Counter current extraction

 Digestion

 Hot continuous extraction

 Decoction

 Phytonics process

 Percolation

Parameters for Selecting an Appropriate Extraction Method

 Use the right plant part and, for quality control purposes, record the period of plant and the time,

season and place of accumulation.

 Authentication of plant material ought to be done before performing extraction. Any outside

matter ought to be totally dispensed with.

 The nature of water or menstruum utilized ought to be indicated and controlled.

 Conditions utilized for drying the plant material to a great extent rely on upon the way of its

compound constituents. Hot or cool blowing wind stream for drying is by and large favored.

 The number of extractions required for complete extraction is as imperative as the length of every


 Nature of constituents plays an imperative part here.

A brief about API production

With time and technology, it’s time for the Pharma firms to improve their procedures of producing

medicines across the world. Each and every strides used in this process have its own importance and are

quite important in the production of APIs. Many pharma organizations rely on API production suppliers,

for the ingredients as well as for the intermediates, which are outsourcing their products and known for

their quality.

Mainly APIs are used as one of the main ingredients for making sterile medicated products; therefore it’s

important to safeguard the production to reduce the changes of spreading the contamination. It’s important

to keep the equipments clean and sterile to produce the better quality of products. That is why it’s

important to hire a quality API production firm which can perform the task efficiently.

Since, it’s important to keep in mind that the production shouldn’t spread any contamination which can be

dangerous for the surroundings. Therefore choose an API production firm which is known for providing

quality products.

At present if you see the statistics of recent surveys, you will see that the Indian pharmaceutical industry

net worth is somewhere around $12 billion, which is quite a development with respect to innovation base

creation, base improvement and an extensive variety of generation. They are known for producing

medicines in bulk for several treatments.

Systematic Capabilities and Regulatory Filing Support for Contracted Customers

At any advancement stage and scale of synthesis, API production firms services for contracted clients

incorporate all supporting exercises that are required to be sufficiently cGMP compliant, for example,

 Process approval

 Cleaning approval

 Cluster discharge

 Scientific strategy advancement and acceptance

 Portrayal of strong state properties, e.g. molecule size dissemination and polymorphism

 Conduction of steadiness studies

 Confirmation of API structure

 Recognizable proof of pollutions

 Planning of Analytical Reference Standards

 Pharmaceutical written work

 Administrative recording support

Therefore it’s critical to select the best firm for your partnership or for availing the APIs.

Building new drug using plant extraction

Development of a drug is a tedious and time consuming process which requires lot of

investment. Before any drug is introduced into the market it undergoes several trials on animals

(banned in India now). Several modifications are done before it is prescribed by a doctor.

Pharmacists endeavor to make a drug economically suitable so that maximum people can afford

them. Majority of drugs are extracted from natural plants through plant extractionand then

modifications are done which include using semisynthetic analogs to increase the duration of

after the drug’s use.

Various marvelous drugs have come up. One of them being morphine which is a potent anti-

analgesic obtained by plant extraction from papaver somniferum. Development of morphine

was a huge revolution in medical science. Many patients who were suffering from terminal stage

cancer or severe pain have been benefited with the use of morphine. It acts like a boon to them a

magical spell one can say.

Many other remarkable drugs have been obtained from natural sources used in medicine, like

antibiotics (e.g. tetracycline, erythromycin), anti-malarial (e.g. quinine, artemisinin), lipid control

agents (e.g. lovastatin and analogs), immune-suppressants (e.g. cyclosporine, rapamycin), and

anticancer drugs (e.g. paclitaxel, irinotecan). Most of them extracted from plant parts using plant


Building of a new drug using plant extraction is really beneficial as it involves less use of

chemicals and using such extraction is cost efficient too. Using chemically made medicine can

be lethal and may cause are variety of side effects. While Ayurveda uses extractions from plants

as the criteria for their medicine. Nature has abundant herbs and using it in a way which helps

the welfare of society is what we need. Therefore, it is better to depend on natural medicine than

to depend on man-made artificial synthetic medicine. It’s aptly said “old is gold” and it holds

true that old remedies are reliable and probably the best way to cure a disease in cost efficient

manner with lesser side effects.


Our reality is so limitless and individuals are curious to the point that the chances to jab, peer,

deconstruct and make are apparently unending topic– synthetic organic chemistry. Let us see a little

more in detail about this.

Customarily, undergrad synthetic organic chemistry experiments ordinarily include combining two or

more chemicals for a specific timeframe, under specific conditions to create another compound. This is

finished by taking after the “formula” gave in the research center manual. For sure, to the uninitiated,

synthetic organic chemistry can appear like cooking. As a general rule it is extremely distant from it.

Once an understudy moves into postgraduate level synthetic organic chemistry, it gets to be about

utilizing what we think about organic responses to deliver a particular synthetic compound or particle.

At times it will be a particle which may have never existed, yet which has been anticipated to have

possibly valuable properties. Different times it will be a current atom that we require a more effective

approach to create (for instance, potential medication particles thought that it was uncommon plants).

The synthetic organic chemistry expert looks at the particle they need to make to perceive how it may

be developed. Utilizing his/her insight into organic chemistry, bonds which ought to be anything but

difficult to frame are recognized and the atom is deconstructed until one has distinguished how the

particle might be amassed starting with atoms that can be promptly purchased from concoction

organizations (or once in a while from characteristic sources). Where particles can be assembled in

various ways the scientist evaluates which is the more effective/more inclined to work. My director

alludes to this as sub-atomic chess – actually, I generally observed chess to be much less demanding. A

scientist should dependably be prepared with an option response, notwithstanding backtracking the

synthetic approach back a few responses so as to take an option course.

Synthetic Organic Chemistry: A beginner’s guide

What is synthetic organic chemistry?

If you are a student of chemistry, a high school student or just someone who is interested in chemistry,

then you should read this article that explains what synthetic organic chemistry is.

This part of chemistry is basically an engineering discipline. Synthetic in the name of this chemistry

discipline means that something new is being made from available materials. When it comes to this

branch of chemistry, that what is being made new from synthesis are various organic compounds.

These newly made organic compounds are constructed via different synthetic organic reactions or

natural chemical reactions.

The aforementioned branch of chemistry is mainly used in the creation of many medicines. This

chemistry discipline can also be described as the art of building up organic compounds from smaller

chemical entities. The main points of interest in synthetic organic chemistry are:

 Production of organic compounds of commercial interest

 Construction of new, possibly bioactive molecules

 Synthetization of very complex natural products

What methods are used in synthetic organic chemistry?

In order for someone to synthesize a complex organic compound, one must do a synthetic analysis and

planning. The best method for synthetic analysis is retrosynthetic analysis. Retrosynthetic analysis is a

technique in chemistry, which is used to solve the problems of organic syntheses, whether it be

synthetic or natural. This method was popularized by American organic chemist Elias James Corey.

Retrosynthetic analysis, also known as retrosynthesis, simplified, means planning a chemical synthesis

backward, starting at the product, which can be some complex organic compound, and taking it back

to the initiators of chemical synthesis.

Other methods that are used in this important pharmaceutical branch of chemistry include:

 Electrosynthesis

 Semisynthesis

 Stereoselectivity

 Synthetic Polymerization

Most widely used methods are electrosynthesis and retrosynthesis.

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