Concentration as a stage in downstream processing and what it entails

In concentration as a stage in downstream processing, the filtrate which is free from suspended

particles normally contains 80-98 of water. The product that is desired is a very minor constituent. In

order to achieve the product’s concentration, the water has to be removed. The following techniques

are commonly used in concentrating biological products for downstream processing;

 Evaporation

 Liquid-liquid extraction

 Membrane filtration

 Precipitation

 Adsorption

In evaporation, the evaporators in general, have a unit for the separation of concentrated product and

vapour, a heating device to supply steam, a condenser to condense the vapour, control equipment and

accessories. Capacity of the equipment may range from a small laboratory to industrial scale.

In liquid-liquid extraction, concentration of biological products can be achieved by transferring

desired product from one liquid phase to another liquid phase. This technique in downstream

processing is also useful for partial product purification. The efficiency of this process is dependent

on the partition coefficient. This process may be broadly categorized as the extraction of low

molecular weight products and extraction of high molecular weight products.

Membrane filtration involves the use of semi permeable membrane that retains the particles

selectively. The membranes used are made up of polymeric materials such as polyvinyl di fluoride

and polyethersulfone. It is normally difficult to sterilize membrane filters.

In precipitation involves the use of high molecular weight polymers, organic solvents and neutral

salts. Both temperature alteration and PH are used in this process.

Adsorption involves concentrating biological products of fermentation using adsorbent particles.

Activated charcoal was used in the early days as the adsorbent material. Cellulose based adsorbents

are used in the recent days. Polystyrene, acrylate based matrices and methacrylate are used for

concentration of low molecular weight compounds. This process can be carried out by passing culture

broth through a bed of adsorbent column.

Downstream Processing, a very valuable process in the production line

Downstream processing is a supply chain process that is the end process after upstream and midstream

process. The upstream process deals with the fermentation, elimination of waste and the product is

recovered and harvested. The fermenter is determined so that the byproducts and the fermented product

are separated from the broth.

Operations

The processing operations begin with the upstream processing and this mostly includes all the initial

operations such as:

 Filtration that involves separation operations

 Floatation

 Centrifugation

 Solubilisation

 Extraction

 Filtration of thermal processing membrane and

 Precipitation.

Eventually, the purification operations also include the midstream processing, a part of the downstream

processing marketing operations such as packing, drying and storage.

Importance

Downstream processing plays a crucial role in pharmaceutical manufacturing companies. This is

because here also it deals with the recovery and purifying of biosynthetic products, thereby includes the

recycling of components, waste disposal and treatment.

Downstream processing is a process that helps in manufacturing or production as it purifies products and

makes it suitable for a particular use in marketable quantity. On the other hand the analytical

bioseparation also is a part of this processing that refers to the purification purpose to measure the mixture

of a component or a component and may also deal with sample sizes.

Influential programs

The influential programs of downstream processing include conditions yielding higher production and

steps to arrive at desired designs and configurations. With the completion of the purification process,

steps are taken to carry out the contaminants resembling the chemical and physical properties of the

product and in this stage downstream processing works to carry out this sophisticated and sensitive

equipment out, thereby adding a fraction to the processing cost.

Finally, before the product is packed, polishing is done, depending on the products need or use and some

undergo sterilizing to eliminate contaminants, thus ensure safety.