The many wonders of Plant extract in the chemical and food industry

There are so many wonders in the human ecosystem that are yet to be discovered and explored to its fullest. Every day, newer discoveries are made helping to further advance human society and providing answers to yet to questions. One of such wonders that is the ability of stem cells or plants to provide solutions to a wide variety of human issues.

Plants generally are a blessing to humanity, from serving as a cover, wind break, a source of photosynthesis, erosion control, and food for both man and animals, soil cover, health booster / remedy and so many more. Added to this endless list are the many benefits of plant extraction for the chemical industry.

A whole lot of chemical composition is derived from plant extraction; from the stems, to leaves, roots, hard bark, seeds /fruits and even the fluids contained in these plants are regularly extracted for the production of different kinds of chemicals for consumption as well as serve as raw materials for production of other goods.

Plant extraction based on research are known to form the basis for the production of cosmetic products in particular. Cosmetic products using natural chemicals are usually referred to as natural or organic products and seen to offer nature’s solution to human problems. There are a wide variety of such including essential oil, vegetable oil, olive oil and others used for skin /hair  treatment.

Apart from these industrially used oils and the use of plant extract for pharmaceutical products there are so many others such as latex, rubber, gum, wax, dye for making a wide variety of products.

Plant extraction also provide a good source of raw materials required for food and food additives such as vegetable oils and fatty acid. These plant extracts are classified as primary and secondary metabolites. The primary metabolites are used for producing soap and detergent. Also, carbohydrate gotten from cassava can generate sucrose, starch, pectin and are all referred to as primary metabolites. Secondary metabolites extracted from plants are responsible for flavour, fragrance, pharmaceuticals and pesticides.

 

The origin of Plant extraction was developed many years ago. Human learned about the plants benefit a

long time ago and hence came up with the first techniques to obtain plant extracts the very first extracts

were attained from fermentation of alcohol using methods such as decoction or distillation, maceration,

infusion or even some process which used water.

In the analysis of o medicinal plants extraction is the first step. It is very critical to extract the desired

chemical components in a plant and later you perform separation and characterization, the simple

operation process is done in steps the first steps is washing the plant materials thoroughly then you dry or

freeze them.

The Procedures and Material Used In Plant Extraction

The first procedures in Plant extraction, the tool they use are used materials and the methods of heating

needed knowledge but not science. However in the current generation accurate mechanization, tolerable

apparatus, proceed in methods analysis and engineering and new technologies for instance pressure,

microwaves or ultrasound, the world of plant extraction expertise still bases on the real association

between the mastery of present technology and tradition. The extract is a substance obtained specifically

from a solid to liquid extraction it is very different from a solid liquid separation.

Excellence Criteria in Plant Extraction

The main determination factors of plant extraction are the selecting raw materials choosing the correct

solvent the utilization process and the performances of the equipment’s all the parameters must be

combined professionally and finally if you follow all the parameters well you will be able to obtain high-

quality plant extracts.

The plant extraction usually happens in a combination of various types of bioactive compounds or phyto

chemicals which holds different polarities however their separations remains a challenge to some people.

Methods of Plant extraction in Drug production

Plant Extraction, as the term is utilized pharmaceutically, includes the partition of restoratively active

bits of plant or creature tissues from the idle or latent segments by utilizing specific solvents as a part of

standard extraction systems. The items so acquired from plants are moderately sullied fluids, semisolids

or powders expected just for oral or outer use. These incorporate classes of arrangements known as

decoctions, mixtures, liquid concentrates, tinctures, pilular (semisolid) extricates and powdered

concentrates. Such arrangements prominently have been called galenicals, named after Galen, the second

century Greek doctor. The reasons for institutionalized plant extraction methods for unrefined

medications are to achieve the restoratively wanted partition and to kill the inactive material by treatment

with a particular dissolvable known as menstruum. The concentrate accordingly acquired might be

prepared for use as a restorative operator as tinctures and liquid concentrates, it might be further handled

to be fused in any dose frame, for example, tablets or cases, or it might be fractionated to detach singular

synthetic elements, for example, ajmalicine, hyoscine and vincristine, which are cutting edge drugs. In

this way, institutionalization of extraction strategies contributes essentially to the last nature of the home

grown medication. Some methods of plant Extraction from herbal Plants are listed below:

 Maceration

 Infusion

 Counter current extraction

 Digestion

 Hot continuous extraction

 Decoction

 Phytonics process

 Percolation

Parameters for Selecting an Appropriate Extraction Method

 Use the right plant part and, for quality control purposes, record the period of plant and the time,

season and place of accumulation.

 Authentication of plant material ought to be done before performing extraction. Any outside

matter ought to be totally dispensed with.

 The nature of water or menstruum utilized ought to be indicated and controlled.

 Conditions utilized for drying the plant material to a great extent rely on upon the way of its

compound constituents. Hot or cool blowing wind stream for drying is by and large favored.

 The number of extractions required for complete extraction is as imperative as the length of every

extraction.

 Nature of constituents plays an imperative part here.

Building new drug using plant extraction

Development of a drug is a tedious and time consuming process which requires lot of

investment. Before any drug is introduced into the market it undergoes several trials on animals

(banned in India now). Several modifications are done before it is prescribed by a doctor.

Pharmacists endeavor to make a drug economically suitable so that maximum people can afford

them. Majority of drugs are extracted from natural plants through plant extractionand then

modifications are done which include using semisynthetic analogs to increase the duration of

after the drug’s use.

Various marvelous drugs have come up. One of them being morphine which is a potent anti-

analgesic obtained by plant extraction from papaver somniferum. Development of morphine

was a huge revolution in medical science. Many patients who were suffering from terminal stage

cancer or severe pain have been benefited with the use of morphine. It acts like a boon to them a

magical spell one can say.

Many other remarkable drugs have been obtained from natural sources used in medicine, like

antibiotics (e.g. tetracycline, erythromycin), anti-malarial (e.g. quinine, artemisinin), lipid control

agents (e.g. lovastatin and analogs), immune-suppressants (e.g. cyclosporine, rapamycin), and

anticancer drugs (e.g. paclitaxel, irinotecan). Most of them extracted from plant parts using plant

extraction.

Building of a new drug using plant extraction is really beneficial as it involves less use of

chemicals and using such extraction is cost efficient too. Using chemically made medicine can

be lethal and may cause are variety of side effects. While Ayurveda uses extractions from plants

as the criteria for their medicine. Nature has abundant herbs and using it in a way which helps

the welfare of society is what we need. Therefore, it is better to depend on natural medicine than

to depend on man-made artificial synthetic medicine. It’s aptly said “old is gold” and it holds

true that old remedies are reliable and probably the best way to cure a disease in cost efficient

manner with lesser side effects.